BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

(Coelomycetes) (stem- and leaf-fungi)

Sets of Photographs

These relate to individual finds ("biological records") of the organism.

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Informal)

Fusicoccum Corda (a form genus of stromatic coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Fusicoccum quercinum Ellis & Everh. (a stromatic coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Macrophoma (Sacc.) Berl. & Voglino (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Macrophoma saginae (Rostr) N. E Buchw. (1958) (a coelomycete) Species   1 ident refs
Phyllosticta Pers. (a form genus of coelomycetous leaf-spot fungi)
Phyllosticta fraxinicola (a coelomycete), eg: Phyllosticta fraxinicola (a coelomycete) - Leaf spot (with ?early pycnidia) - from top of leaf
Form genus 1 subtaxon 3 ident refs
Camarosporium Schulzer (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Camarosporium roumeguerei Sacc. (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Septoria Sacc. (a form genus of coelomycetous leaf-spot fungi)
Septoria convolvuli (a leaf-spot fungus), eg: Septoria convolvuli (a leaf-spot fungus) - Lesions on leaf - top surface - close-up Septoria ficariae (a leaf-spot fungus), eg: Septoria ficariae (a leaf-spot fungus) - Leaf top surface with multiple leaf-spots Septoria hydrocotyles (a leaf-spot fungus), eg: Septoria hydrocotyles (a leaf-spot fungus) - Infected plant - close-up Septoria polemonii (a leaf-spot fungus), eg: Septoria polemonii (a leaf-spot fungus) - Leaf spots on leaf - top surface Septoria quercicola (a leaf-spot fungus), eg: Septoria quercicola (a leaf-spot fungus) - Leaf spot - dead leaf - under surface Septoria saponariae (a leaf-spot fungus), eg: Septoria saponariae (a leaf-spot fungus) - Leaf spot - top surface with pycnidia Septoria sp. nov. (Escallonia Leaf-spot - causative organism), eg: Septoria sp. nov. (Escallonia Leaf-spot - causative organism) - Pycnidia on leaf spot
Form genus 23 subtaxa 15 ident refs
Ascochyta Lib. (a form genus of coelomycetous leaf-spot fungi)
Form genus 5 subtaxa 4 ident refs
Coniothyrium Corda (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Coniothyrium obiones Jaap (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Aposphaeria Berk. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Unidentified Aposphaeria (Unidentified Aposphaeria Coelomycetes) Unidentified    
Stagonospora (Sacc.) Sacc. (a form genus of coelomycetous leaf-spot fungi)
Form genus 4 subtaxa 3 ident refs
Phoma Sacc. (a form genus of coelomycetes)
Phoma hedericola (an ivy leaf spot (causative organism)), eg: Phoma hedericola (an ivy leaf spot (causative organism)) - Pycnidia on top surface of leaf Phoma polygramma (a coelomycete), eg: Phoma polygramma (a coelomycete) - Pycnidium - close-up Unidentified Phoma (Unidentified Phoma Coelomycetes), eg: Unidentified Phoma (Unidentified Phoma Coelomycetes) - Plant with infected (yellowish) leaves
Form genus 9 subtaxa 8 ident refs
Pyrenochaeta De Not. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Pyrenochaeta terrestris (H.N. Hansen) Gorenz, J.C. Walker & Larson (Pink Root Of Onion - causative organism) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Laeviomyces D. Hawksw. (a form genus of a lichenicolous coelomycetes) Form genus   1 ident refs
Hainesia Ellis & Sacc. (a form genus of coelomycetes)
Form genus 2 subtaxa 3 ident refs
Marssonina Magnus (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Marssonina betulae (Lib.) Magnus (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Amerosporium Speg. (a form genus of excipulate coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Unidentified Amerosporium (Unidentified Amerosporium Excipulate Coelomycetes)
Setae
Unidentified    
Leptostroma Fr. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Unidentified Leptostroma (Unidentified Leptostroma Coelomycetes)
Pycnidia
Unidentified    
Lichenoconium Petr. & Syd. (a form genus of lichenicolous coelomycetes)
Form genus 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii Bubák (Rhizosphaera Needle Cast - causative organism) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Pseudoseptoria Speg. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus   1 ident refs
Phomopsis (Sacc.) Bubák (a form genus of coelomycetes)
Phomopsis araucariae (a coelomycete), eg: Phomopsis araucariae (a coelomycete) - Conidiophores Phomopsis piceae (a coelomycete), eg: Phomopsis piceae (a coelomycete) - Conidiomata
Form genus 6 subtaxa 4 ident refs
Sirococcus conigenus (DC.) P.F. Cannon & Minter (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Colletotrichum Corda (a form genus of coelomycetes)
Form genus 1 subtaxon 2 ident refs
Seimatosporium Corda (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Seimatosporium hypericinum (Ces.) B. Sutton (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Sphaeronaema Fr. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Sphaeronaema cornutum (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Sphaeropsis Sacc. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 2 subtaxa  
Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.) Dyko & B. Sutton (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   3 ident refs
Sphaeropsis visci (Alb. & Schwein.) Sacc. (a coelomycete)
Infected sprig
Anamorphic Species    
Vouauxiomyces Dyko & D. Hawksw. (a form genus of a lichenicolous coelomycetes)
Form genus 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998 Microfungi on Miscellaneous Substrates: An Identification Handbook
Grove, W.B., 1935 British Stem- and Leaf- Fungi: Coelomycetes Vol. I … Sphaeropsidales with hyaline conidia
Grove, W.B., 1937 British Stem- and Leaf- Fungi: Coelomycetes Vol. II ... Sphaeropsidales (rest) + Melanconiales
Sutton, B.C., 1980 The Coelomycetes: Fungi Imperfecti with Pycnidia, Acervuli and Stromata

Lichenicolous fungi

Hawksworth, D.L., Atienza, V. & Coppins, B.J., in prep. Artifical Keys to the Lichenicolous Fungi of Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands, Iberian Peninsula, and Canary Islands

Lichenicolous species

Hawksworth, D.L., 1981 The lichenicolous Coelomycetes

Plant pathology

Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 (Not well-covered - Grove's 2-volume work remains very useful, despite being 70 years old.) Microfungi on Land Plants: An Identification Handbook
Moore, W.C., 1959 British Parasitic Fungi

(Coelomycetes) may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
FUNGI S.S.
(true fungi)
Anamorphic fungi
(mitosporic fungi)
Fungi s.l.

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 2297 feeding and other relationships of (Coelomycetes) (stem- and leaf-fungi)

Further Information

Notes (MWS) Coelomycetes are anamorphic ascomycetes - ie they are an asexual phase in the life-cycle. In some cases they precede the sexual stage, in others they persist in isolation and the sexual stage is rare or unknown. Some are even spermatia which produce the gametes which give rise to the sexual stage.

In the absence of the sexual stage they were named and classified, according to their asexual morphology, into the so-called "form genera". Nowadays these have no taxonomic significance, although they are still used as names for the asexual morphology.

This is a purely artificial classification (some would call it a "dumping ground") for anamorphic fungi (ie fungi where the stage that produces sexual spores is not formed or is unknown), and where the asexual spores (conidia) are formed inside a closed body, or one that is initially closed.

Coelomycetes are saprobes on dead plant material, or parasites which cause small infection spots on living leaves and stems. Many are species-specific, or at least have traditionally been treated as distinct species on different hosts.

Over the years, the members have been gradually removed as laboratory cultures have yielded the sexual states. More recently DNA sequencing has superseded this and the classification will eventually disappear. Nevertheless "coelomycete" remains a useful descriptive term for the asexual state of many ascomycetes.

Coelomycetes are divided into those which form pycnidia (closed structures from which the conidia issue through the ostiole, a small circular opening) and those which form acervuli (effectively everted pycnidia) with the conidia produced on the outside and termed "pustules".
How to find Most coelomycetes are plant-pathogens or grow on dead plant material, although a few attack lichens or rusts.

It is best to collect coelomycetes in damp periods when they have ripe conidia; often these are visible en masse either as a white or grey, sometimes orange whisker arising from the ostiole or as a waxy deposit on the surface of the pycnidium or substrate.
Lab. techniques Damp chamber culturing is useful. Often this just means leaving a few infected leaves in a sealed box in a cool place for a few days.

Following such culturing, a spore tendril often issues from the ostiole. This is useful in confirming which pycnidia are living and enables easy determination of spore colour.
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