BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

BIOTA (living things)

Further Information

Notes (MWS) Pronunciation of Scientific names:

Scientific names are expressed in Latin. The individual words or parts of words may be derived from other languages, eg Greek, or the names of places or people, but the resulting words are always Latinised, so it's the pronunciation of Latin that is our concern.

There are four competing conventions for pronouncing Latin (as follows, each with the appropriate pronunciation of Julius Caesar):

Anglo-Latin JOO-lee-us SEE-ser
Classical Latin (or reconstructed ancient Roman) YOO-lee-us KYE-sahr
Church Latin YOO-lee-us CHAY-sahr
The northern continental European tradition YOO-lee-us T(SAY)-sahr

Anglo-Latin (Ommundsen) and northern continental European are the preferred conventions for Latin names. These differ from both Classical Latin, which will be familiar to those who learnt Latin at school, and Church Latin which will be recognised by those who sing in choirs.

Many people pronounce occasional scientific names in other ways, and local idiosyncracies often evolve among people who work together. Naturalists rarely worry about being "book correct", but these rules are useful to answer questions about which is "right".

Personally, what I hear and say seems stick fairly closely to Anglo-Latin, but I like to make an exception where the word is obviously two words joined together, when it can be helpful to emphasise the separate parts.


Rank Taxon #subtaxa #photos #macrophotos #microphotos #notes #refs
Domain Eukaryota (eukaryotes) 9174 50526 25558 14091 2354 12453
Domain Monera (prokaryotes) 37 105 8 140   92
Superkingdom VIROIDS (virus-like particles) 1         10
Superkingdom VIRUSES (viruses) 3   2     26
Informal (Lower Plants) (lower plants) 8020 32055 16142 20892 4700 12180

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Insect Rambles: web id resources: Insect Rambles: web id resources


DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway: DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway

Biodiversity catalogs

Bioimages - the Virtual Field Guide: Bioimages - the Virtual Field Guide


Land Use Consultants, 1997 Characterisation of farming of Natural Areas


Clegg, J., 1956 The Observer's Book of Pond Life
FreshwaterLife: FreshwaterLife
Greenhalgh, M. & Ovenden, D., 2007 (fresh and brackish water species) Freshwater Life of Britain and Northern Europe
Ward H.B. & Whipple G.C., 1959 (USA) Freshwater Biology


The Marine Life Information Network for Britain and Ireland (MarLIN): The Marine Life Information Network for Britain and Ireland (MarLIN)
Brackish water
Greenhalgh, M. & Ovenden, D., 2007 Freshwater Life of Britain and Northern Europe
ICES Identification leaflets for Plankton: ICES Identification leaflets for Plankton

Plant galls

British Galls: British Galls
Galles par Plantes - Gallen volgens Waardplant: Galles par Plantes - Gallen volgens Waardplant
Plantengallen: Plantengallen
Pflanzengallen: Pflanzengallen
Redfern, M. & Askew, R.R., 1992 Plant Galls
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2011 British Plant Galls

Plant pathology

Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants


Synoptic keys
DELTA - DEscription Language for TAxonomy: DELTA - DEscription Language for TAxonomy

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 3856 general literature references to BIOTA (living things)

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 102397 feeding and other relationships of BIOTA (living things)

Creative Commons Licence
Unless otherwise expressly stated, all original material on the BioImages website by Malcolm Storey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence.