BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Order)

DACNONYMPHA (a suborder of micro-moths) Suborder 3 subtaxa  
ERIOCRANIOIDEA (a superfamily of micro-moths) Superfamily 3 subtaxa  
ERIOCRANIIDAE (a family of micro-moths)
Eriocrania (a genus of micro-moths), eg: Eriocrania semipurpurella (Early Purple) - Mined leaf - upper side
Family 3 subtaxa 5 ident refs
EPERMENIOIDEA (a superfamily of moths) Superfamily 1 subtaxon  
EPERMENIIDAE (lance-wing micro-moths, fringe-tufted moths) Family   3 ident refs
EXOPORIA (swift moths)
HEPIALOIDEA (swift moths), eg: Hepialus sylvina (Orange Swift Moth) - Male - lateral view
Suborder 5 subtaxa 1 ident refs
HETERONEURA (a suborder of moths and butterflies)
Ditrysia (butterflies and most moths), eg: Saturnia pavonia (Emperor Moth) - Female adult - dorsal view INCURVARIOIDEA (longhorn and lift micro-moths), eg: Adela reaumurella (Green Long-horn) - Female - dorsal view NEPTICULOIDEA (eye-cap micro-moths), eg: Unidentified Stigmella (Unidentified Pigmy Moths) - Dorsal view YPONOMEUTOIDEA (a superfamily of micro-moths), eg: Yponomeuta sedella (Sedum Ermine, Grey Ermine) - Dorsal view
Suborder 692 subtaxa 401 ident refs
ZEUGLOPTERA (jawed micro-moths) Suborder 2 subtaxa  
MICROPTERIGOIDEA (jawed micro-moths)
MICROPTERIGIDAE (jawed micro-moths), eg: Micropterix aruncella (White-barred Gold) - Male - dorsal view
Superfamily 2 subtaxa 1 ident refs
Unidentified Lepidoptera (Unidentified Butterflies and Moths)
Cocoon - one birch leaf peeled off
Unidentified    
(Leaf-miner moths) (moths with leaf-mining larvae)
ERIOCRANIIDAE (a family of micro-moths), eg: Eriocrania semipurpurella (Early Purple) - Mined leaf - upper side TORTRICIDAE (tortrix moths), eg: Acleris variegana (Garden Rose Tortrix) - Adult - dorsal view COLEOPHORIDAE (a family of micro-moths), eg: Coleophora trochilella (Verge Case-bearer) - Adult - dorsal view COSMOPTERIGIDAE (a family of micro-moths), eg: Pancalia leuwenhoekella (Violet Cosmet) - Dorsal view ELACHISTIDAE (a family of micro-moths), eg: Elachista poae (Sweet-grass Dwarf) - Adult - dorsal view MOMPHIDAE (a family of micro-moths), eg: Mompha locupletella (Red Cosmet) - Dorsolateral view BUCCULATRICIDAE (a family of micro-moths), eg: Bucculatrix frangutella (Buckthorn Bent-wing) - Leaf mines - top surface GRACILLARIIDAE (a family of micro-moths), eg: Cameraria ohridella (Horse-chestnut Leaf-miner) - Adult - dorsal view ROESLERSTAMMIIDAE (a family of small ermine moths), eg: Roeslerstammia erxlebella (Copper Ermel) - Dorsal view
Informal 124 subtaxa 104 ident refs
(Microlepidoptera) (micro-moths)
DACNONYMPHA (a suborder of micro-moths), eg: Eriocrania semipurpurella (Early Purple) - Mined leaf - upper side EXOPORIA (swift moths), eg: Hepialus sylvina (Orange Swift Moth) - Dorsal view ALUCITOIDEA (many-plume moths), eg: Alucita hexadactyla (Many-plume Moth, Twenty-plume Moth) - Dorsal view CHOREUTIDAE (a family of micro-moths), eg: Anthophila fabriciana (Nettle-tap, Fabricius’ Nettle-tap, Common Nettle-tap) - Dorsal view - close-up Apoditrysia (butterflies and most moths), eg: Saturnia pavonia (Emperor Moth) - Female adult - dorsal view PYRALOIDEA (grass and meal moths), eg: Scoparia pyralella (Meadow Grey) - Adult - dorsal view PTEROPHOROIDEA (plume moths), eg: Agdistis bennetii (Saltmarsh Plume) - Dorsal view TORTRICOIDEA (cochylid and tortrix moths), eg: Acleris variegana (Garden Rose Tortrix) - Adult - dorsal view GELECHIOIDEA (a superfamily of micro-moths), eg: Elachista poae (Sweet-grass Dwarf) - Adult - dorsal view GRACILLARIOIDEA (a superfamily of micro-moths), eg: Cameraria ohridella (Horse-chestnut Leaf-miner) - Adult - dorsal view TINEOIDEA (a superfamily of micro-moths), eg: Nemapogon cloacella (Cork Moth) - Dorsal view YPONOMEUTOIDEA (a superfamily of micro-moths), eg: Yponomeuta sedella (Sedum Ermine, Grey Ermine) - Dorsal view ZEUGLOPTERA (jawed micro-moths), eg: Micropterix aruncella (White-barred Gold) - Female - dorsal view
Informal 803 subtaxa 819 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Insects & Spiders from Finland
: http://www.kolumbus.fi/hannu.j.tanner/coleoptera/
Insects & Spiders from Finland
Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa: http://www.leps.it/ Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa
What's Flying tonight?: http://www.suffolkmoths.org.uk/cgi-bin/flyingTonight.cgi What's Flying tonight?
Northumberland Moths: id tips: http://www.northumberlandmoths.org.uk/idtips.php Northumberland Moths: id tips
Davis, B.N.K., 1991 Insects on Nettles
Emmet, A.M., Langmaid, J. & Heath J., 1983 Micropterigidae to Heliozelidae (vol 1)
Svenska fjärilar: http://www2.nrm.se/en/svenska_fjarilar/svenska_fjarilar.html Svenska fjärilar
UK Lepidoptera: http://jeffhiggott.topcities.com/lepidoptera/lepidoptera.html UK Lepidoptera
UK Moths: http://ukmoths.org.uk UK Moths
British Lepidoptera: http://britishlepidoptera.weebly.com/ British Lepidoptera
Meyrick, E., 1927 A Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera
Nippe, B, 2000 Atlas der Raupen europäischer und kleinasiatischer Schmetterlinge
Lepidoptera and some other life forms: http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/intro.html Lepidoptera and some other life forms
South, R., 1961 The Moths of the British Isles
Moths and butterflies of Sweden: http://www.lepidoptera.se/en Moths and butterflies of Sweden
Whitfield, J.B. & Wagner, D.L., 1991 Annotated key to the genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) attacking leafmining Lepidoptera in the Holarctic Region
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): http://users.skynet.be/jjw.myco.mons Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

Caterpillars

Illustrated Guide to British Caterpillars: http://www.wildlifeinsight.com/guide-to-british-caterpillars/ Illustrated Guide to British Caterpillars
Buckler, W., 1899 The larvae of the British butterflies and moths
Eggs, Larvae and Pupae of Butterflies and Moths: http://www.ukleps.org Eggs, Larvae and Pupae of Butterflies and Moths
Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera: http://www.kolumbus.fi/silvonen/lnel/species.htm Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera

Conifer feeders

Clifton, J. & Wheeler, J., 2012 Conifer Moths of the British Isles: a Field Guide to Coniferous-feeding Lepidoptera

Flying tonight

Fliyng tonight?: http://www.norfolkmoths.co.uk/micros.php?flightarrivals=yes&showthumbs=yes&listmonth Fliyng tonight?
What's flying tonight?: http://www.suffolkmoths.org.uk/flyingTonight.html What's flying tonight?

Host plants

Kirk, W.D.J., 1992 Insects on Cabbages and Oilseed Rape

Microscopy

The Dissection Group: http://www.dissectiongroup.co.uk The Dissection Group

on cherry trees

Leather, S.R. & Bland, K.P., 1999 Insects on cherry trees

on docks

Salt, D.T. & Whittaker, J.B., 1998 Insects on dock plants

on thistles

Redfern, M., 1995 Insects and Thistles

Plant galls

Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2011 British Plant Galls
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986 Provisional Keys to British Plant Galls

Pupae

Patocka, J. & Turcani, M., 2005 Lepidoptera Pupae: Central European Species

Stored product pests

Mound, L. (ed), 1989 Common Insects of Stored Products: a guide to their identification.

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 81 general literature references to LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

LEPIDOPTERA may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
ANIMALIA
(animals)
ARTHROPODA
(arthropods)
HEXAPODA
(insects and other 6-legged organisms)
INSECTA
(true insects)

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 1180 feeding and other relationships of LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

Further Information

Lab. techniques Cremaster: Once the moth has emerged, the exuvium is available for examination and the cremaster is generally still intact. The more intricate cremasters are often strongly entangled in silk which is difficult to remove to examine the structure. A few minutes soaking in dilute KOH dissolves the silk. Unlike teasing it away with a needle, this does no damage but obviously cannot be applied to living pupae.
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