BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

Further Information

Lab. techniques Cremaster: Once the moth has emerged, the exuvium is available for examination and the cremaster is generally still intact. The more intricate cremasters are often strongly entangled in silk which is difficult to remove to examine the structure. A few minutes soaking in dilute KOH dissolves the silk. Unlike teasing it away with a needle, this does no damage but obviously cannot be applied to living pupae.

Sets of Photographs

These relate to individual finds ("biological records") of the organism.

Taxon Summary # images # photos # macrophotos Date Vice-county Country
Lepidoptera Larva 13 10 3 2 Jul 2008 North-east Yorks England
Lepidoptera? Caterpillar 11 11 25 May 2006 Berks England
Lepidoptera Larva 9 9 29 May 2006 Berks England
Lepidoptera Ova and young larvae 8 8 17 Sep 2005 Berks England
Lepidoptera? Imago 6 6 28 Jun 2008 South-east Yorks England
Lepidoptera? Caterpillar 6 6 25 May 2006 Berks England
Lepidoptera Larva, cocoon 6 5 1 4 Oct 2005 Berks England
Lepidoptera? Caterpillar 5 5 23 May 2006 Berks England
Lepidoptera? Caterpillar 4 4 25 May 2006 Berks England
Lepidoptera Pupa 4 4 7 Mar 1971 East Norfolk England
Lepidoptera? Caterpillar 3 3 25 May 2006 Berks England
Lepidoptera? Caterpillar 3 3 23 May 2006 Berks England


Rank Taxon #subtaxa #photos #macrophotos #microphotos #refs
Suborder DACNONYMPHA (a suborder of micro-moths) 2        
Superfamily ERIOCRANIOIDEA (a superfamily of micro-moths) 2        
Family ERIOCRANIIDAE (a family of micro-moths) 2 8 42   5
Superfamily EPERMENIOIDEA (a superfamily of moths) 1        
Family EPERMENIIDAE (lance-wing micro-moths, fringe-tufted moths)         3
Suborder EXOPORIA (swift moths) 4 66 8   1
Suborder HETERONEURA (a suborder of moths and butterflies) 654 5361 753 158 455
Suborder ZEUGLOPTERA (jawed micro-moths) 2        
Superfamily MICROPTERIGOIDEA (jawed micro-moths) 2 26     1
Informal (Leaf-miner moths) (moths with leaf-mining larvae) 103 456 362 82 59
Informal (Microlepidoptera) (micro-moths) 741 5780 916 210 483

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Insects & Spiders from Finland
Insects & Spiders from Finland
Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa: Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa
What's Flying tonight?: What's Flying tonight?
Northumberland Moths: id tips: Northumberland Moths: id tips
Davis, B.N.K., 1991 Insects on Nettles
Emmet, A.M., Langmaid, J. & Heath J., 1983 Micropterigidae to Heliozelidae (vol 1)
Svenska fjärilar: Svenska fjärilar
UK Lepidoptera: UK Lepidoptera
UK Moths: UK Moths
British Lepidoptera: British Lepidoptera
Meyrick, E., 1927 A Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera
Nippe, B, 2000 Atlas der Raupen europäischer und kleinasiatischer Schmetterlinge
Lepidoptera and some other life forms: Lepidoptera and some other life forms
South, R., 1961 The Moths of the British Isles
Moths and butterflies of Sweden: Moths and butterflies of Sweden
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)


Buckler, W., 1899 The larvae of the British butterflies and moths
Eggs, Larvae and Pupae of Butterflies and Moths: Eggs, Larvae and Pupae of Butterflies and Moths
Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera: Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera

Conifer feeders

Clifton, J. & Wheeler, J., 2012 Conifer Moths of the British Isles: a Field Guide to Coniferous-feeding Lepidoptera

Flying tonight

Fliyng tonight?: Fliyng tonight?
What's flying tonight?: What's flying tonight?

Host plants

Kirk, W.D.J., 1992 Insects on Cabbages and Oilseed Rape


The Dissection Group: The Dissection Group

on cherry trees

Leather, S.R. & Bland, K.P., 1999 Insects on cherry trees

on docks

Salt, D.T. & Whittaker, J.B., 1998 Insects on dock plants

on thistles

Redfern, M., 1995 Insects and Thistles

Plant galls

Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2011 British Plant Galls
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986 Provisional Keys to British Plant Galls


Patocka, J. & Turcani, M., 2005 Lepidoptera Pupae: Central European Species

Stored product pests

Mound, L. (ed), 1989 Common Insects of Stored Products: a guide to their identification.

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 78 general literature references to LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

LEPIDOPTERA may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 1178 feeding and other relationships of LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

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