BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

EU-DICOTS (dicotyledonous flowering plants)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Subclass)

APIALES (umbellifers, ivies and pennyworts)
APIACEAE (umbellifers), eg: Oenanthe silaifolia (Narrow-leaved Water-dropwort) - Partial umbel - underside showing bracteoles ARALIACEAE (ivies and angelica trees), eg: Fatsia japonica (Fatsia) - Plant HYDROCOTYLACEAE (pennyworts), eg: Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating Pennywort) - Leaf - top surface - close-up PITTOSPORACEAE (pittosporums), eg: Unidentified Pittosporum (Unidentified Pittosporums) - Small tree
Order 51 subtaxa 18 ident refs
AQUIFOLIALES (hollies) Order 1 subtaxon  
AQUIFOLIACEAE (hollies) Family 1 subtaxon  
Ilex aquifolium L. (Holly)
Foliage
Species    
ASTERALES (daisies, dandelions, thistles and bell flowers)
ASTERACEAE (daisies, dandelions and thistles, composite), eg: Bellis perennis (Daisy) - Flower head - close-up CAMPANULACEAE (bellflowers), eg: Campanula rotundifolia (Harebell) - Flower bud MENYANTHACEAE (bogbean and fringed water-lily), eg: Nymphoides peltata (Fringed Water-lily) - Leaves and flowers on lake surface
Order 145 subtaxa 56 ident refs
BORAGINACEAE (comfreys and forget-me-nots)
Anchusa (alkanets), eg: Anchusa arvensis (Bugloss) - Flowers - close-up Borago (borages), eg: Borago officinalis (Borage) - Flowering shoot Cerinthe (a genus of garden plants), eg: Cerinthe minor (Lesser Honeywort) - Plant - in situ - top view Cynoglossum (hound's tongues), eg: Cynoglossum officinale (Hound's Tongue, Hound's-tongue) - Plant Echium (viper's buglosses), eg: Echium pininana (Giant Viper's-bugloss) - First-year plants (to flower next year) - oblique view Lithospermum (gromwells), eg: Lithospermum officinale (Common Gromwell) - Plant Mertensia (a genus of flowering plants), eg: Mertensia maritima (Oysterplant) - Flowers - close-up Myosotis (forget-me-nots), eg: Myosotis arvensis (Field Forget-me-not) - Plant Pentaglottis sempervirens (Green Alkanet), eg: Pentaglottis sempervirens (Green Alkanet) - Plant Pulmonaria (lungworts), eg: Pulmonaria longifolia (Narrow-leaved Lungwort) - Leaves Symphytum (comfreys), eg: Symphytum officinale x asperum = S. x uplandicum (Russian comfrey) - Plant - in situ
Family 25 subtaxa 1 ident refs
BRASSICALES Bromhead, 1838 (cabbages, cresses, weld, mignonette, spiders flowers and garden nasturtiums)
BRASSICACEAE (cabbages, cresses etc.), eg: Cardamine amara (Large Bitter-cress) - Plant - in situ RESEDACEAE (weld and mignonette), eg: Reseda lutea (Wild Mignonette) - Flowers - close-up TROPAEOLACEAE (garden nasturtiums), eg: Tropaeolum speciosum (Flame Nasturtium) - Plant and flowers - in garden situation
Order 60 subtaxa 14 ident refs
BUXALES (box trees) Order 1 subtaxon  
BUXACEAE (boxes) Family 1 subtaxon  
Buxus sempervirens L. (Box)
Flowers
Species    
CARYOPHYLLALES Takht., 1967 (pinks, goosefoots and docks)
AIZOACEAE (dew-plants), eg: Carpobrotus edulis var. edulis (Hottentot Fig) - Plant - covering cliffs AMARANTHACEAE (goosefoots, oraches, glassworts, amaranths & pigweeds), eg: Atriplex littoralis (Grass-leaved Orache) - Flower clusters CARYOPHYLLACEAE (chickweeds, stitchworts and campions, carnation), eg: Petrorhagia prolifera (Proliferous Pink) - Plant - in situ DROSERACEAE (sundews), eg: Drosera rotundifolia x intermedia = D. x belezeana (Godlingston sundew) - Plants with flowers FRANKENIACEAE (sea heaths), eg: Frankenia laevis (Sea Heath, Sea-heath) - Carpet of flowers - close-up MOLLUGINACEAE (a family of flowering plants), eg: Corrigiola litoralis (Strapwort) - Small plant - in situ MONTIACEAE (blinks), eg: Claytonia sibirica (Pink Purslane) - Flower - top view PLUMBAGINACEAE (thrifts and sea lavenders), eg: Limonium recurvum subsp. portlandicum (a sea-lavender) - Plant - in situ POLYGONACEAE (docks and knotgrasses), eg: Fallopia convolvulus (Black-bindweed) - Plant TAMARICACEAE (tamarisks), eg: Tamarix gallica (Tamarisk) - Plants
Order 132 subtaxa 67 ident refs
CELASTRALES (spindles and grass of Parnassus) Order 3 subtaxa  
CELASTRACEAE (spindles) Family 1 subtaxon  
Euonymus europaeus L. (Spindle)
Flowers
Species    
PARNASSIACEAE (grass of Parnassus) Family 2 subtaxa  
Parnassia palustris L. (Grass Of Parnassus, Grass-of-Parnassus) Species 2 subtaxa  
Parnassia palustris var. condensata Travis & Wheldon (Grass Of Parnassus (Coastal Form))
Fruit - ripening - oblique view - close-up
Variety    
Parnassia palustris var. palustris Travis & Wheldon (Grass Of Parnassus)
Flower
Variety    
CERATOPHYLLALES Link, 1829 (hornworts) Order 1 subtaxon  
CERATOPHYLLACEAE Gray (hornworts)
Ceratophyllum demersum (Rigid Hornwort), eg: Ceratophyllum demersum (Rigid Hornwort) - Leaves
Family 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
CORNALES (dogwoods, mock oranges and hydrangeas)
CORNACEAE (dogwood), eg: Cornus suecica (Dwarf Cornel) - Inflorescence - side view - close-up HYDRANGEACEAE (mock oranges and hydrangeas), eg: Hydrangea macrophylla (Hydrangea) - Plant
Order 6 subtaxa  
CUCURBITALES (cucurbits, cucumbers and melons) Order 2 subtaxa  
BEGONIACEAE (begonia family) Family 1 subtaxon  
Begonia sp. cult. (garden begonias)
Begonia
Species aggregate 1 subtaxon  
CUCURBITACEAE (cucurbits, cucumbers and melons) Family 1 subtaxon  
Bryonia dioica Jacq. (White Bryony, Red Bryony)
Flower - female - side view
Species    
DIPSACALES (elder, honeysuckles, valerians, scabiouses and teasels)
ADOXACEAE (moschatel, elders, viburnums), eg: Adoxa moschatellina (Moschatel, Townhall Clock) - Flowering plant CAPRIFOLIACEAE (honeysuckles), eg: Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle) - Bush - with flowers
Order 26 subtaxa 9 ident refs
ERICALES Bercht. & J.Presl, 1820 (heaths, heathers, azaleas, primroses, loosestrifes and balsams)
BALSAMINACEAE (balsams), eg: Impatiens glandulifera (Indian Balsam, Himalayan Balsam) - Plant - top view ERICACEAE (heaths, heathers, rhododendrons, azaleas & wintergeeens), eg: Monotropa hypopitys subsp. hypopitys (a subspecies of flowering plant) - Plant POLEMONIACEAE (Jacob’s ladder and phloxes), eg: Polemonium caeruleum (Jacob’S-ladder) - Flowers - face view - close-up PRIMULACEAE (primroses, loosestrifes and pimpernels), eg: Cyclamen hederifolium (Cyclamen, Sowbread) - Flower - side view SARRACENIACEAE (pitcher plants), eg: Unidentified Sarraceniaceae (Unidentified Pitcher Plants) - Young plant - close-up
Order 49 subtaxa 25 ident refs
FABALES (vetches, peas, beans and milkworts)
FABACEAE (vetches, peas, beans, accacias, wattles and sennas), eg: Vicia lutea (Yellow Vetch, Yellow-vetch) - Flower POLYGALACEAE (milkworts), eg: Polygala serpyllifolia (Heath Milkwort) - Plant - in situ
Order 80 subtaxa 23 ident refs
FAGALES (forest trees)
BETULACEAE (birches, hazels, hornbeams and alders), eg: Carpinus betulus (Hornbeam) - Leaf spray FAGACEAE (forest trees), eg: Fagus sylvatica (Beech) - Tree (Trees with bark of pH 3.8-5.8) (very acid-barked trees), eg: Quercus robur (Pedunculate Oak) - Tree - freshly in leaf JUGLANDACEAE (walnuts, hickories, wingnuts), eg: Juglans nigra (Black Walnut) - Twig - second year showing leaf scars - close-up MYRICACEAE (myrtles), eg: Myrica gale (Bog Myrtle, Bog-myrtle, Sweet Gale) - Bush with catkins NOTHOFAGACEAE (southern beeches), eg: Nothofagus obliqua (Roble) - Stem and leaf bases
Order 25 subtaxa 13 ident refs
GARRYALES (tassel bushes) Order 1 subtaxon  
GARRYACEAE (tassel bushes) Family 1 subtaxon  
Garrya elliptica Douglas ex Lindl. (Silk Tassel Bush, Silk-tassel)
Weather-damaged leaves - top surfaces
Species    
GENTIANALES (bedstraws, gentians and periwinkles)
APOCYNACEAE (periwinkles and asclepiads), eg: Vinca major var. major (Greater Periwinkle) - Flower - face view - close-up GENTIANACEAE (gentians and felworts), eg: Gentiana verna (Spring Gentian) - Plant with flower - side view RUBIACEAE (madder, goosegrass and bedstraws), eg: Cruciata laevipes (Crosswort) - Plant
Order 27 subtaxa 12 ident refs
GERANIALES (geraniums and storksbills)
GERANIACEAE (geraniums and storksbills), eg: Geranium columbinum (Long-stalked Crane's-bill) - Flower shoot
Order 17 subtaxa 5 ident refs
GUNNERALES (giant rhubarbs, gunneras) Order 1 subtaxon  
GUNNERACEAE (giant rhubarbs, gunneras) Family   1 ident refs
LAMIALES Bromhead, 1838 (dead-nettles and speedwells)
ACANTHACEAE (bear's breeches), eg: Acanthus mollis (Bear's-breech) - Flowering plants (in bud) CALCEOLARIACEAE (slipperworts), eg: Calceolaria chelidonioides (Slipperwort) - Flowers - close-up LAMIACEAE (dead-nettles, mints and scented herbs), eg: Stachys officinalis (Betony) - Flower head LENTIBULARIACEAE (butterworts and bladderworts), eg: Pinguicula lusitanica (Pale Butterwort) - Flower - side view OLEACEAE (olive family), eg: Ligustrum vulgare (Wild Privet) - Berries on bushes OROBANCHACEAE (eyebrights, cow-wheats, louseworts & broomrapes), eg: Rhinanthus minor subsp. minor (Yellow-rattle) - Inflorescence PAULOWNIACEAE (foxglove trees), eg: Paulownia tomentosa (Foxglove Tree, Foxglove-tree) - Tree PHRYMACEAE (monkeyflowers), eg: Mimulus guttatus (Monkeyflower) - Plant - in situ PLANTAGINACEAE (plantains), eg: Veronica spicata (Spiked Speedwell) - Plant SCROPHULARIACEAE (figworts), eg: Scrophularia auriculata (Water Figwort, Water Betony) - Plant VERBENACEAE (vervains), eg: Verbena officinalis (Vervain) - Plant
Order 131 subtaxa 42 ident refs
MALPIGHIALES (poplars, willows, St John's worts, spurges and violets)
EUPHORBIACEAE (spurges), eg: Euphorbia amygdaloides subsp. amygdaloides (Wood Spurge) - Plant - top view HYPERICACEAE (St John’s-worts), eg: Hypericum humifusum (Trailing St John’S-wort) - Plant - in situ LINACEAE (flaxes), eg: Linum grandiflorum (Crimson Flax) - Plant - in situ - top view showing growth form PASSIFLORACEAE (passionflowers and passionfruit), eg: Passiflora caerulea (Passion Flower, Blue Passionflower) - Callosity on leaf margin SALICACEAE (poplars and willows), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin VIOLACEAE (violets, pansies), eg: Viola reichenbachiana (Early Dog-violet) - Flower - face-view
Order 70 subtaxa 32 ident refs
MALVALES (mallows, limes, daphnes and rockroses)
CISTACEAE (rockroses), eg: Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides (Hoary Rock-rose (Western Ireland Spp.)) - Plant with flowers and leaves MALVACEAE (mallows & limes), eg: Althaea officinalis (Marsh-mallow) - Shoot with flower buds THYMELAEACEAE (daphnes), eg: Daphne laureola (Spurge-laurel) - Leaf rosette and flowers - close-up
Order 17 subtaxa 4 ident refs
MYRTALES (willowherbs, loosestrifes, gums and tea-trees)
LYTHRACEAE (purple loosestrife and water purslane), eg: Lythrum portula (Water-purslane) - Capsule - close-up - top view MYRTACEAE (gums and tea-trees), eg: Eucalyptus dalrympleana (Broad-leaved Kindlingbark, Mountain Gum) - Bark around base of branch ONAGRACEAE (willowherbs and evening primroses), eg: Oenothera stricta (Fragrant Evening-primrose) - Flower bud
Order 24 subtaxa 11 ident refs
OXALIDALES (sorrels) Order 2 subtaxa  
OXALIDACEAE (sorrels) Family 2 subtaxa  
Oxalis acetosella L. (Wood-sorrel)
Flowers and bud
Species    
Oxalis corniculata L. (Procumbent Yellow-sorrel)
Plant - uprooted
Species    
PROTEALES (plane trees) Order 2 subtaxa  
PLATANACEAE (plane trees) Family 1 subtaxon  
Platanus occidentalis x orientalis = P. x hispanica Mill. ex Münchh. (London plane)
Flowers and bursting leaf buds
Species hybrid    
PROTEACEAE (proteas) Family 1 subtaxon  
Unidentified Grevillea (Unidentified Spider-flower, Silk-oak, Silky-oak)
Foliage
Unidentified    
RANUNCULALES (buttercups, poppies and barberries)
BERBERIDACEAE (barberrys), eg: Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon-grape) - Growing in woodland PAPAVERACEAE (poppies and fumitories), eg: Papaver rhoeas (Common Poppy, Flanders Poppy) - Plants RANUNCULACEAE (buttercups, crowfoots), eg: Myosurus minimus (Mousetail) - Plant
Order 53 subtaxa 14 ident refs
ROSALES Bercht. & J.Presl, 1820 (roses, elms, nettles, hops, buckthorns and figs)
CANNABACEAE (hops), eg: Cannabis sativa (Hemp) - Leaf - under surface ELAEAGNACEAE (elaeagnus and sea buckthorn), eg: Hippophaë rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn, Sea-buckthorn) - Berries - close-up RHAMNACEAE (buckthorns), eg: Frangula alnus (Alder Buckthorn, Black Dogwood) - Leaves - top surface ROSACEAE (roses and fruit trees), eg: Rosa micrantha (Small-flowered Sweet-briar) - Flower - close-up ULMACEAE (elms), eg: Ulmus minor subsp. angustifolia (Cornish Elm) - Leaf spray - lower side URTICACEAE (nettles), eg: Parietaria judaica (Pellitory-of-the-wall) - Plant - in situ
Order 88 subtaxa 44 ident refs
SANTALALES (sandalwoods) Order 3 subtaxa  
SANTALACEAE (sandalwoods) Family 3 subtaxa  
Loranthus europaeus (a mistletoe)
Leaves
Species    
Thesium humifusum DC. (Stars-in-grass, Bastard-toadflax)
Flowers - face view
Species    
Viscum album L. (Mistletoe)
Fruiting plant - against sky
Species   1 ident refs
SAPINDALES (rues, sumachs, smoke tree, prinde of India and tree of heaven)
RUTACEAE (rues), eg: Skimmia japonica (Skimmia) - Bush - with berries SAPINDACEAE (maples & horse chestnuts), eg: Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore, Great Maple) - Foliage - just coming into leaf and flower SIMAROUBACEAE (tree of heaven), eg: Ailanthus altissima (Tree Of Heaven, Tree-of-heaven) - Tree
Order 9 subtaxa 4 ident refs
SAXIFRAGALES Bercht. & J.Presl, 1820 (saxifrages, peonies, currants and gooseberries)
CRASSULACEAE (stonecrops), eg: Sedum anglicum (English Stonecrop) - Plant - in situ GROSSULARIACEAE (currants and gooseberry), eg: Ribes uva-crispa (Gooseberry) - In situ HALORAGACEAE (water-milfoils), eg: Myriophyllum verticillatum (Whorled Water-milfoil) - 4-whorled leaves SAXIFRAGACEAE (saxifrages), eg: Tolmiea menziesii (Pick-a-back-plant) - Plant - in situ
Order 30 subtaxa 14 ident refs
SOLANALES (bindweeds and nightshades)
CONVOLVULACEAE (bindweeds & dodders), eg: Calystegia sepium subsp. sepium (Hedge Bindweed, Great Bindweed) - Flower - side view SOLANACEAE (nightshades), eg: Solanum villosum (Red Nightshade) - Plant - side view
Order 24 subtaxa 4 ident refs
VITALES (vines and Virgina creepers) Order 3 subtaxa  
VITACEAE (vines and Virgina creepers) Family 3 subtaxa  
Parthenocissus inserta (A. Kern.) Fritsch (False Virginia Creeper, False Virginia-creeper) Species   1 ident refs
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. (Virginia Creeper, Virginia-creeper)
Plant
Species   1 ident refs
Unidentified Vitis (Unidentified Vines)
Leafy stem
Unidentified    
(Broadleaved shrubs) (broadleaved shrubs)
PITTOSPORACEAE (pittosporums), eg: Unidentified Pittosporum (Unidentified Pittosporums) - Small tree BUXACEAE (boxes), eg: Buxus sempervirens (Box) - Flowers PLUMBAGINACEAE (thrifts and sea lavenders), eg: Limonium recurvum subsp. portlandicum (a sea-lavender) - Plant - in situ TAMARICACEAE (tamarisks), eg: Tamarix gallica (Tamarisk) - Plants CELASTRACEAE (spindles), eg: Euonymus europaeus (Spindle) - Spindle tree CORNACEAE (dogwood), eg: Cornus suecica (Dwarf Cornel) - Inflorescence - side view - close-up Sambucus (elders), eg: Sambucus nigra (Elder) - Umbel - top view - close-up Viburnum (viburnums), eg: Viburnum opulus (Guelder Rose, Guelder-rose) - Flowers Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle), eg: Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle) - Bush - with flowers Lonicera nitida (Wilson's Honeysuckle), eg: Lonicera nitida (Wilson's Honeysuckle) - Stem Symphoricarpos albus (Snowberry), eg: Symphoricarpos albus (Snowberry) - Leaf sprays ERICACEAE (heaths, heathers, rhododendrons, azaleas & wintergeeens), eg: Monotropa hypopitys subsp. hypopitys (a subspecies of flowering plant) - Plant Cytisus (a genus of brooms), eg: Cytisus scoparius subsp. scoparius (Broom) - Dark flowers - close-up Ulex (gorses), eg: Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze, Whin) - Plant MYRICACEAE (myrtles), eg: Myrica gale (Bog Myrtle, Bog-myrtle, Sweet Gale) - Bush with catkins Ligustrum (privets), eg: Ligustrum vulgare (Wild Privet) - Berries on bushes PAULOWNIACEAE (foxglove trees), eg: Paulownia tomentosa (Foxglove Tree, Foxglove-tree) - Tree Hypericum androsaemum (Tutsan), eg: Hypericum androsaemum (Tutsan) - Flower - faded Hypericum calycinum (Rose-of-Sharon), eg: Hypericum calycinum (Rose-of-Sharon) - Flower bud and faded calyx Salix (willows), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin CISTACEAE (rockroses), eg: Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides (Hoary Rock-rose (Western Ireland Spp.)) - Plant with flowers and leaves THYMELAEACEAE (daphnes), eg: Daphne laureola (Spurge-laurel) - Leaf rosette and flowers - close-up BERBERIDACEAE (barberrys), eg: Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon-grape) - Growing in woodland ELAEAGNACEAE (elaeagnus and sea buckthorn), eg: Hippophaë rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn, Sea-buckthorn) - Berries - close-up RHAMNACEAE (buckthorns), eg: Frangula alnus (Alder Buckthorn, Black Dogwood) - Leaves - top surface Amelanchier lamarckii (Juneberry), eg: Amelanchier lamarckii (Juneberry) - Flowers Cotoneaster (cotoneasters), eg: Cotoneaster horizontalis (Wall Cotoneaster) - Sept - leaf spray - underside Crataegus (hawthorns), eg: Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn) - Flower buds and leaves - underside Dryas octopetala (Mountain Avens), eg: Dryas octopetala (Mountain Avens) - Flower and foliage - top view Kerria japonica (Kerria), eg: Kerria japonica flore pleno (Kerria (Double Flowered)) - Flower cluster - top view Prunus (plums, cherries and laurels), eg: Prunus avium (Wild Cherry) - Flower Pyracantha (firethorns), eg: Pyracantha coccinea (Firethorn) - Flower buds - side view Rosa (roses), eg: Rosa micrantha (Small-flowered Sweet-briar) - Flower - close-up Rubus (brambles), eg: Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry) - Plant - in situ Spiraea (brideworts and steeple bushes, spiraea), eg: Spiraea salicifolia x douglasii = S. x pseudosalicifolia (confused bridewort) - Flowering shoot RUTACEAE (rues), eg: Skimmia japonica (Skimmia) - Bush - with berries GROSSULARIACEAE (currants and gooseberry), eg: Ribes uva-crispa (Gooseberry) - In situ
Informal 160 subtaxa 102 ident refs
(Broadleaved trees) (broadleaved, frondose or deciduous trees)
AQUIFOLIACEAE (hollies), eg: Ilex aquifolium (Holly) - Foliage Arbutus unedo (Strawberry-tree), eg: Arbutus unedo (Strawberry-tree) - Inflorescence FAGALES (forest trees), eg: Fagus sylvatica (Beech) - Tree OLEACEAE (olive family), eg: Ligustrum vulgare (Wild Privet) - Berries on bushes SALICACEAE (poplars and willows), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin Tilia (limes), eg: Tilia platyphyllos x cordata = T. x europaea (lime) - 'Lime Avenue' at Kingston Lacy - just coming into leaf PLATANACEAE (plane trees), eg: Platanus occidentalis x orientalis = P. x hispanica (London plane) - Flowers and bursting leaf buds Crataegus (hawthorns), eg: Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn) - Flower buds and leaves - underside Prunus (plums, cherries and laurels), eg: Prunus avium (Wild Cherry) - Flower Pyrus (pears), eg: Pyrus communis (Pear) - Branches Sorbus (whitebeams), eg: Sorbus aucuparia (Rowan, Mountain Ash) - Berries - on the tree ULMACEAE (elms), eg: Ulmus minor subsp. angustifolia (Cornish Elm) - Leaf spray - lower side
Informal 88 subtaxa 85 ident refs
(Broadleaved trees and shrubs) (broadleaved trees and shrubs)
(Broadleaved shrubs), eg: Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle) - Bush - with flowers (Broadleaved trees) (broadleaved, frondose or deciduous trees), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin (Ectomycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs) (ectomycorrhizal or ectotrophic mycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs), eg: Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides (Hoary Rock-rose (Western Ireland Spp.)) - Plant with flowers and leaves (Endomycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs) (endomycorrhizal or endotrophic mycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs), eg: Prunus laurocerasus (Cherry Laurel) - Flower spikes
Informal 63 subtaxa 130 ident refs
(Broadleaved trees, shrubs and climbers) (broadleaved trees, shrubs and climbers) Informal 1 subtaxon  
(Broadleaved trees and shrubs) (broadleaved trees and shrubs)
(Broadleaved shrubs), eg: Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle) - Bush - with flowers (Broadleaved trees) (broadleaved, frondose or deciduous trees), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin (Ectomycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs) (ectomycorrhizal or ectotrophic mycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs), eg: Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides (Hoary Rock-rose (Western Ireland Spp.)) - Plant with flowers and leaves (Endomycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs) (endomycorrhizal or endotrophic mycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs), eg: Prunus laurocerasus (Cherry Laurel) - Flower spikes
Informal 63 subtaxa 130 ident refs
(Climbing plants) (climbing plants)
Hedera (ivies), eg: Hedera helix subsp. helix (Common Ivy) - Close-up Bryonia dioica (White Bryony, Red Bryony), eg: Bryonia dioica (White Bryony, Red Bryony) - Flower - female - side view Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle), eg: Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle) - Plant - in situ in hedge Lonicera periclymenum (Honeysuckle), eg: Lonicera periclymenum (Honeysuckle) - Flowers CONVOLVULACEAE (bindweeds & dodders), eg: Calystegia sepium subsp. sepium (Hedge Bindweed, Great Bindweed) - Flower - side view Dioscorea communis (Black Bryony), eg: Dioscorea communis (Black Bryony) - Flowers
Informal 16 subtaxa 2 ident refs
(Ectomycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs) (ectomycorrhizal or ectotrophic mycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs)
BETULACEAE (birches, hazels, hornbeams and alders), eg: Carpinus betulus (Hornbeam) - Leaf spray FAGACEAE (forest trees), eg: Fagus sylvatica (Beech) - Tree MYRICACEAE (myrtles), eg: Myrica gale (Bog Myrtle, Bog-myrtle, Sweet Gale) - Bush with catkins SALICACEAE (poplars and willows), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin Helianthemum (rock-roses), eg: Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides (Hoary Rock-rose (Western Ireland Spp.)) - Plant with flowers and leaves Tilia (limes), eg: Tilia platyphyllos x cordata = T. x europaea (lime) - 'Lime Avenue' at Kingston Lacy - just coming into leaf MYRTACEAE (gums and tea-trees), eg: Eucalyptus dalrympleana (Broad-leaved Kindlingbark, Mountain Gum) - Bark around base of branch
Informal 61 subtaxa 64 ident refs
(Endomycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs) (endomycorrhizal or endotrophic mycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs)
AQUIFOLIACEAE (hollies), eg: Ilex aquifolium (Holly) - Foliage ERICACEAE (heaths, heathers, rhododendrons, azaleas & wintergeeens), eg: Monotropa hypopitys subsp. hypopitys (a subspecies of flowering plant) - Plant Alnus (alders), eg: Alnus glutinosa (Alder) - Leaf - upper side MYRICACEAE (myrtles), eg: Myrica gale (Bog Myrtle, Bog-myrtle, Sweet Gale) - Bush with catkins OLEACEAE (olive family), eg: Ligustrum vulgare (Wild Privet) - Berries on bushes CISTACEAE (rockroses), eg: Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides (Hoary Rock-rose (Western Ireland Spp.)) - Plant with flowers and leaves PLATANACEAE (plane trees), eg: Platanus occidentalis x orientalis = P. x hispanica (London plane) - Flowers and bursting leaf buds BERBERIDACEAE (barberrys), eg: Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon-grape) - Growing in woodland RHAMNACEAE (buckthorns), eg: Frangula alnus (Alder Buckthorn, Black Dogwood) - Leaves - top surface Crataegus (hawthorns), eg: Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn) - Flower buds and leaves - underside Prunus (plums, cherries and laurels), eg: Prunus avium (Wild Cherry) - Flower Pyrus (pears), eg: Pyrus communis (Pear) - Branches Sorbus (whitebeams), eg: Sorbus aucuparia (Rowan, Mountain Ash) - Berries - on the tree ULMACEAE (elms), eg: Ulmus minor subsp. angustifolia (Cornish Elm) - Leaf spray - lower side MAGNOLIACEAE (magnolias), eg: Magnolia grandiflora
Informal 79 subtaxa 56 ident refs
(Fruit trees) (fruit-bearing trees)
(Fruit Trees - wild) (wild fruit trees), eg: Prunus laurocerasus (Cherry Laurel) - Leaf spray with flower buds
Informal 8 subtaxa  
(Fruit Trees - wild) (wild fruit trees)
Prunus avium (Wild Cherry), eg: Prunus avium (Wild Cherry) - Flower Prunus cerasifera (Cherry Plum), eg: Prunus cerasifera (Cherry Plum) - Branch - in flower Prunus domestica (Wild Plum), eg: Prunus domestica subsp. insititia (Damson, Bullace) - Leaf spray - under surface Prunus laurocerasus (Cherry Laurel), eg: Prunus laurocerasus (Cherry Laurel) - Flower spikes Prunus padus (Bird Cherry), eg: Prunus padus (Bird Cherry) - Leaf - upper side Prunus spinosa (Blackthorn, Sloe), eg: Prunus spinosa (Blackthorn, Sloe) - Flowers - close-up
Informal 7 subtaxa  
(Herbaceous Plants) (herbaceous plants)
APIACEAE (umbellifers), eg: Oenanthe silaifolia (Narrow-leaved Water-dropwort) - Partial umbel - underside showing bracteoles ASTERACEAE (daisies, dandelions and thistles, composite), eg: Bellis perennis (Daisy) - Flower head - close-up CAMPANULACEAE (bellflowers), eg: Campanula rotundifolia (Harebell) - Flower bud MENYANTHACEAE (bogbean and fringed water-lily), eg: Nymphoides peltata (Fringed Water-lily) - Leaves and flowers on lake surface BORAGINACEAE (comfreys and forget-me-nots), eg: Echium pininana (Giant Viper's-bugloss) - First-year plants (to flower next year) - oblique view BRASSICACEAE (cabbages, cresses etc.), eg: Cardamine amara (Large Bitter-cress) - Plant - in situ RESEDACEAE (weld and mignonette), eg: Reseda lutea (Wild Mignonette) - Flowers - close-up TROPAEOLACEAE (garden nasturtiums), eg: Tropaeolum speciosum (Flame Nasturtium) - Plant and flowers - in garden situation ( CARYOPHYLLACEAE (chickweeds, stitchworts and campions, carnation), eg: Petrorhagia prolifera (Proliferous Pink) - Plant - in situ DROSERACEAE (sundews), eg: Drosera rotundifolia x intermedia = D. x belezeana (Godlingston sundew) - Plants with flowers PLUMBAGINACEAE (thrifts and sea lavenders), eg: Limonium recurvum subsp. portlandicum (a sea-lavender) - Plant - in situ POLYGONACEAE (docks and knotgrasses), eg: Fallopia convolvulus (Black-bindweed) - Plant CERATOPHYLLACEAE (hornworts), eg: Ceratophyllum demersum (Rigid Hornwort) - Leaves CUCURBITACEAE (cucurbits, cucumbers and melons), eg: Bryonia dioica (White Bryony, Red Bryony) - Leaf - close-up ADOXACEAE (moschatel, elders, viburnums), eg: Adoxa moschatellina (Moschatel, Townhall Clock) - Flowering plant Linnaea borealis (Twinflower), eg: Linnaea borealis (Twinflower) - Plant - in situ Lonicera (honeysuckles), eg: Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle) - Plant - in situ in hedge BALSAMINACEAE (balsams), eg: Impatiens glandulifera (Indian Balsam, Himalayan Balsam) - Plant - top view POLEMONIACEAE (Jacob’s ladder and phloxes), eg: Polemonium caeruleum (Jacob’S-ladder) - Flowers - face view - close-up PRIMULACEAE (primroses, loosestrifes and pimpernels), eg: Cyclamen hederifolium (Cyclamen, Sowbread) - Flower - side view SARRACENIACEAE (pitcher plants), eg: Unidentified Sarraceniaceae (Unidentified Pitcher Plants) - Young plant - close-up FABOIDEAE (vetches, peas and beans), eg: Vicia lutea (Yellow Vetch, Yellow-vetch) - Flower POLYGALACEAE (milkworts), eg: Polygala serpyllifolia (Heath Milkwort) - Plant - in situ APOCYNACEAE (periwinkles and asclepiads), eg: Vinca major var. major (Greater Periwinkle) - Flower - face view - close-up GENTIANACEAE (gentians and felworts), eg: Gentiana verna (Spring Gentian) - Plant with flower - side view RUBIACEAE (madder, goosegrass and bedstraws), eg: Cruciata laevipes (Crosswort) - Plant GERANIACEAE (geraniums and storksbills), eg: Geranium columbinum (Long-stalked Crane's-bill) - Flower shoot CALCEOLARIACEAE (slipperworts), eg: Calceolaria chelidonioides (Slipperwort) - Flowers - close-up LAMIACEAE (dead-nettles, mints and scented herbs), eg: Stachys officinalis (Betony) - Flower head LENTIBULARIACEAE (butterworts and bladderworts), eg: Pinguicula lusitanica (Pale Butterwort) - Flower - side view OROBANCHACEAE (eyebrights, cow-wheats, louseworts & broomrapes), eg: Rhinanthus minor subsp. minor (Yellow-rattle) - Inflorescence PLANTAGINACEAE (plantains), eg: Veronica spicata (Spiked Speedwell) - Plant SCROPHULARIACEAE (figworts), eg: Scrophularia auriculata (Water Figwort, Water Betony) - Plant VERBENACEAE (vervains), eg: Verbena officinalis (Vervain) - Plant EUPHORBIACEAE (spurges), eg: Euphorbia amygdaloides subsp. amygdaloides (Wood Spurge) - Plant - top view Hypericum (St John's worts), eg: Hypericum humifusum (Trailing St John’S-wort) - Plant - in situ LINACEAE (flaxes), eg: Linum grandiflorum (Crimson Flax) - Plant - in situ - top view showing growth form VIOLACEAE (violets, pansies), eg: Viola reichenbachiana (Early Dog-violet) - Flower - face-view Helianthemum (rock-roses), eg: Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides (Hoary Rock-rose (Western Ireland Spp.)) - Plant with flowers and leaves MALVACEAE (mallows & limes), eg: Althaea officinalis (Marsh-mallow) - Shoot with flower buds LYTHRACEAE (purple loosestrife and water purslane), eg: Lythrum portula (Water-purslane) - Capsule - close-up - top view ONAGRACEAE (willowherbs and evening primroses), eg: Oenothera stricta (Fragrant Evening-primrose) - Flower bud OXALIDACEAE (sorrels), eg: Oxalis corniculata (Procumbent Yellow-sorrel) - Leaf - under surface FUMARIOIDEAE (fumitories), eg: Pseudofumaria lutea (Yellow Corydalis) - Flower - side view PAPAVERACEAE (poppies and fumitories), eg: Papaver rhoeas (Common Poppy, Flanders Poppy) - Plants RANUNCULACEAE (buttercups, crowfoots), eg: Myosurus minimus (Mousetail) - Plant Acaena (pirri-pirri burs), eg: Acaena novae-zelandiae (Pirri-pirri-bur) - Flower head Agrimonia (agrimonies), eg: Agrimonia eupatoria (Agrimony) - Plant Alchemilla (lady's-mantles), eg: Alchemilla mollis (Garden Lady's-mantle) - Plant - in situ Aphanes (parsley pierts), eg: (Aphanes arvensis agg.) (parsley pierts) - Plant Filipendula (meadowsweets), eg: Filipendula vulgaris (Dropwort) - Inflorescence - top view - close-up Fragaria (strawberries), eg: Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry) - Plant Geum (avens), eg: Geum rivale x urbanum = G. x intermedium (hybrid avens) - Flower - side view Potentilla (cinquefoils), eg: Potentilla erecta (Tormentil) - Plant Sanguisorba (burnets), eg: Sanguisorba officinalis (Great Burnet) - Flowers with Meadow-sweet URTICACEAE (nettles), eg: Parietaria judaica (Pellitory-of-the-wall) - Plant - in situ CRASSULACEAE (stonecrops), eg: Sedum anglicum (English Stonecrop) - Plant - in situ HALORAGACEAE (water-milfoils), eg: Myriophyllum verticillatum (Whorled Water-milfoil) - 4-whorled leaves SAXIFRAGACEAE (saxifrages), eg: Tolmiea menziesii (Pick-a-back-plant) - Plant - in situ CONVOLVULACEAE (bindweeds & dodders), eg: Calystegia sepium subsp. sepium (Hedge Bindweed, Great Bindweed) - Flower - side view SOLANACEAE (nightshades), eg: Solanum villosum (Red Nightshade) - Plant - side view LILIIDAE (monocotyledonous flowering plants), eg: Arum maculatum (Cuckoo Pint, Lords and Ladies, Lords-and-ladies) - Plant NARTHECIACEAE (bog asphodels), eg: Narthecium ossifragum (Bog Asphodel) - Inflorescence - top view NYMPHAEACEAE (water lilies), eg: Nuphar lutea (Yellow Water-lily) - Floating on water surface
Informal 1477 subtaxa 1368 ident refs
(Soft Fruit) (treees, bushes and plants that are grown for soft fruit)
Fragaria (strawberries), eg: Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry) - Plant Prunus (plums, cherries and laurels), eg: Prunus avium (Wild Cherry) - Flower Rubus (brambles), eg: Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry) - Plant - in situ Ribes (currants and gooseberry), eg: Ribes uva-crispa (Gooseberry) - In situ
Informal 22 subtaxa 16 ident refs
(Woody plants) (subshrubs)
ERICACEAE (heaths, heathers, rhododendrons, azaleas & wintergeeens), eg: Monotropa hypopitys subsp. hypopitys (a subspecies of flowering plant) - Plant CISTACEAE (rockroses), eg: Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides (Hoary Rock-rose (Western Ireland Spp.)) - Plant with flowers and leaves Rubus (brambles), eg: Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry) - Plant - in situ
Informal 38 subtaxa 42 ident refs

Suggested Literature

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 320 general literature references to EU-DICOTS (dicotyledonous flowering plants)

EU-DICOTS may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
PLANTAE
(plants)
TRACHEOPHYTA
(vascular plants)
MAGNOLIOPSIDA
(flowering plants)

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 31495 feeding and other relationships of EU-DICOTS (dicotyledonous flowering plants)

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