BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

GASTROPODA Cuvier, 1795 (slugs and snails)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Class)

ACOCHLIDIACEA Odhner, 1937 (an order of marine gastropods) Order   1 ident refs
ANASPIDEA Fischer, 1883 (an order of molluscs) Order 1 subtaxon  
AKERIDAE Mazzarelli, 1891 (a family of marine aplysiomorph gastropods) Family 1 subtaxon  
Akera bullata O. F. Müller, 1776 (an aplysiomorph gastropod)
Akera bullata var. nana (an aplysiomorph gastropod), eg: Akera bullata var. nana (an aplysiomorph gastropod) - Dead shell - mouth view - dry
Species 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
ARCHITAENIOGLOSSA Haller, 1892 (an order of molluscs) Order 2 subtaxa  
ACICULIDAE Gray, 1850 (point snails)
Family 1 subtaxon 4 ident refs
VIVIPARIDAE Gray, 1847 (river snails)
Viviparus viviparus (River Snail), eg: Viviparus viviparus (River Snail) - Shell - underside and operculum
Family 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
CALLIOSTOMATIDAE Thiele, 1924 (1847) (a family of molluscs) Family 1 subtaxon  
Calliostoma zizyphinum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Painted Topshell)
Shell - side view showing mouth
Species    
CARYCHIIDAE Jeffreys, 1830 (a family of molluscs)
Carychium (a genus of hollow-shelled snail), eg: Unidentified Carychium (Unidentified Carychium Hollow-shelled Snail) - Live animal - dorso-lateral view
Family 2 subtaxa 1 ident refs
CEPHALASPIDEA P. Fischer, 1883 (an order of molluscs) Order 1 subtaxon  
RUNCINIDAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 (a family of marine gastropods) Family 1 subtaxon  
Runcina coronata (Quatrefages, 1844) (a sea slug)
Animal - partly extended - dorsal view
Species    
COCHLICELLIDAE Schileyko, 1972 (a family of molluscs) Family 1 subtaxon  
Cochlicella (Cochlicella) acuta (O. F. Müller, 1774) (Pointed Snail)
Shells
Species    
ECTOBRANCHIA Fischer, 1884 (an order of molluscs) Order 1 subtaxon  
VALVATIDAE O. F. Müller, 1774 (valve snails) Family   1 ident refs
HETEROSTROPHA (an order of molluscs)
Order 4 subtaxa 6 ident refs
HYGROMIIDAE Tryon, 1866 (a family of molluscs)
Candidula intersecta (Wrinkled Snail), eg: Candidula intersecta (Wrinkled Snail) - Shell - two views Helicella itala (Heath Snail), eg: Helicella itala (Heath Snail) - Shell Hygromia (a genus of molluscs), eg: Hygromia (Hygromia) cinctella (Girdled Snail) - Shell - top view Monacha (a genus of molluscs), eg: Monacha (Monacha) cantiana (Kentish Snail) - Mating pair Trochulus (a genus of molluscs), eg: Trochulus (Trochulus) hispidus (Hairy Snail) - Mouth
Family 5 subtaxa  
HYGROPHILA Férussac, 1822 (an order of molluscs)
ACROLOXIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Acroloxus lacustris (Lake Limpet) - Top view LYMNAEIDAE (pond snails), eg: Radix peregra (Wandering Pondsnail) - Dorsal view PHYSIDAE (bladder snails), eg: Physa (not fontinalis) (introduced bladder snails) - Dorsal view PLANORBIDAE (ram’s horn or trumpet snails), eg: Ancylus fluviatilis (River Limpet) - Dorsal view
Order 19 subtaxa 5 ident refs
Lauria (Lauria) cylindracea (da Costa, 1778) (Common Chrysalis Snail)
Shells
Species    
LITTORINIMORPHA Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 (an order of molluscs)
BITHYNIIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Bithynia tentaculata (Common Bithynia) - Crawling animal - dorsal view CALYPTRAEIDAE (slipper limpets), eg: Calyptraea chinensis (Chinaman's Hat) - Dorsal view - active HYDROBIIDAE (spire snails or mudsnails), eg: Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Jenkins' Spire Snail) - Live animal - dorsal view LITTORINIDAE (periwinkles), eg: Littorina obtusata var. citrina (Flat Periwinkle - Yellow Form) - Yellow shells - top views NATICIDAE (a family of whelks), eg: Euspira catena (a whelk) - Empty shell - top view RISSOIDAE (a family of prosobranch marine snails), eg: Rissoa membranacea var. membranacea (a marine snail) - Shells TRIVIIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Trivia monacha (Spotted Cowrie) - Active animal - antero-dorsal view TRUNCATELLIDAE (looping snails), eg: Truncatella subcylindrica (Looping Snail) - Looping - oblique view - close-up VELUTINIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Lamellaria perspicua (a prosobranch mollusc) - Latero-dorsal view
Order 26 subtaxa 10 ident refs
NEOTAENIOGLOSSA Haller, 1892 (an order of molluscs)
POMATIIDAE (land winkles), eg: Pomatias elegans (Round-mouthed Snail) - Shell TURRITELLIDAE (turret shells), eg: Turritella communis (Turret Shell, Auger Shell) - Shells - body whorl view
Order 7 subtaxa 9 ident refs
NUDIBRANCHIA Cuvier, 1817 (sea slugs)
AEOLIDACEA (a suborder of sea slugs), eg: Facelina auriculata (a sea slug) - Dorsal view DISCODORIDIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Geitodoris planata (a sea slug) - Under water - dorsal view DORIDACEA (a suborder of sea slugs), eg: Polycera quadrilineata (a sea-slug) - Dorsal view DOTIDAE (a family of sea slugs), eg: Unidentified Doto (Unidentified Doto Sea Slugs) - Lateral view GONIODORIDIDAE (a family of sea slugs), eg: Goniodoris nodosa (a sea slug) - Side view
Order 14 subtaxa 6 ident refs
OPISTHOBRANCHIA (opisthobranchs)
Order 2 subtaxa 8 ident refs
PATELLOGASTROPODA (an order of molluscs)
LOTTIIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Tectura virginea (White Tortoiseshell Limpet) - Active animal - ventral view PATELLIDAE (limpets), eg: Patella vulgata (Common Limpet) - In situ - lateral view
Order 6 subtaxa 2 ident refs
PATULIDAE (a family of molluscs) Family 1 subtaxon  
Discus (Gonyodiscus) rotundatus (Muller, 1774) (Rounded Snail)
Snail
Species    
PLEUROBRANCHOMORPHA (an order of marine gastropods)
PLEUROBRANCHIDAE (a family of marine gastropods), eg: Berthella plumula (Yellow-plumed Sea Slug) - Dorsal view
Order 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
PROSOBRANCHIA Milne-Edwards, 1848 (operculate molluscs)
ARCHAEOGASTROPODA (limpets and top shells), eg: Tricolia pullus (Pheasant Shell) - Crawling - viewed from left side below NEOGASTROPODA (an order of predatory gastropods), eg: Ocenebra erinaceus (Rough Tingle, Sting Winkle, Oyster Drill) - Dorsal view
Subclass 15 subtaxa 22 ident refs
PULMONATA (slugs and snails)
ARCHAEOPULMONATA (hollow-shelled snails), eg: Myosotella myosotis (Mouse-eared Snail) - Crawling - dorsal view STYLOMMATOPHORA (slugs and snails), eg: Cepaea (Cepaea) nemoralis (Brown Lipped Snail, Brown-lipped Snail) - Yf0345, dark lip - active - side view
Subclass 37 subtaxa 47 ident refs
SACOGLOSSA Ihering, 1876 (an order of marine gastropods)
ELYSIIDAE (a family of sea hares), eg: Elysia viridis (a sea hare) - Parapodia extended - latero-dorsal view - close-up HERMAEIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Hermaea bifida (a sea-slug) - Dorsal view LIMAPONTIIDAE (a family of marine gastropods), eg: Limapontia capitata (a sacoglossan sea-slug) - Dorsal view
Order 4 subtaxa 1 ident refs
SYSTELLOMMATOPHORA Pilsbry, 1948 (an order of molluscs) Order 1 subtaxon  
ONCHIDIIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 (a family of marine molluscs) Family 1 subtaxon  
Onchidella celtica (Cuvier, 1816) (Celtic Sea Slug)
In situ
Species    
VETIGASTROPODA Salvini-Plawen, 1980 (a subclass of molluscs) Subclass   1 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Cameron, R.A.D. & Redfern, M., 1976 British Land Snails
Macan, T.T. & Cooper, R.D., 1960 A Key to the British Fresh- and Brackish-Water Gastropods
Morton, J.E. & Machin, J., 1959 (Land snails) A key to the Land snails of the Flatford Area, Suffolk
Wardhaugh, A.A., 1989 Land Snails of the British Isles
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): http://users.skynet.be/jjw.myco.mons Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

Freshwater

Janus, H., 1965 The Young Specialist looks at Molluscs
Module 10: identification of Molluscs (Gastropoda and Bivalvia): https://www.fba.org.uk/identification-freshwater-invertebrates-species-level-distance-learning-course Module 10: identification of Molluscs (Gastropoda and Bivalvia)

Marine

Fishers Collection: www.fisherscollection.com Fishers Collection
UK Seashells: http://www.fredandsarah.plus.com/ukseashells UK Seashells
Plankton
Newell, G.E. & Newell, R.C., 1973 (larvae) Marine Plankton - a practical guide

Planktonic larvae

Apstein, C. & Brandt, K.A.H. (eds), 1901 Tunicata, Mollusca

Terrestrial

Janus, H., 1965 The Young Specialist looks at Molluscs

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 53 general literature references to GASTROPODA (slugs and snails)

GASTROPODA may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
ANIMALIA
(animals)
MOLLUSCA
(slugs, snails, bivalves, octopus, sea slugs)

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 155 feeding and other relationships of GASTROPODA (slugs and snails)

Further Information

Lab. techniques To prepare microscope slides of the radula:

1. Gently cut off or extract the head region of the dead snail.
2. Macerate in 5% KOH in a hot waterbath until the tissues disintegrate, (about 10 mins for a small snail)
3. Find the radula (not always easy! Even adding Safranin to the alkali doesn't help)
4. Stain in Safranin
5. Wash
6. Make a temporary mount in lactophenol (but this tends to dissolve out the stain: need to experiment with other stains eg Lignin Pink)
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