BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

GASTROPODA Cuvier, 1795 (slugs and snails)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Class)

ACOCHLIDIACEA Odhner, 1937 (an order of marine gastropods) Order   1 ident refs
ANASPIDEA Fischer, 1883 (an order of molluscs) Order 1 subtaxon  
AKERIDAE Mazzarelli, 1891 (a family of marine aplysiomorph gastropods) Family 1 subtaxon  
Akera bullata O. F. Müller, 1776 (an aplysiomorph gastropod)
Akera bullata var. nana (an aplysiomorph gastropod), eg: Akera bullata var. nana (an aplysiomorph gastropod) - Dead shell - mouth view - dry
Species 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
ARCHITAENIOGLOSSA Haller, 1892 (an order of molluscs) Order 2 subtaxa  
ACICULIDAE Gray, 1850 (point snails)
Family 1 subtaxon 4 ident refs
VIVIPARIDAE Gray, 1847 (river snails)
Viviparus viviparus (River Snail), eg: Viviparus viviparus (River Snail) - Shell - underside and operculum
Family 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
CALLIOSTOMATIDAE Thiele, 1924 (1847) (a family of molluscs) Family 1 subtaxon  
Calliostoma zizyphinum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Painted Topshell)
Shell - side view showing mouth
CARYCHIIDAE Jeffreys, 1830 (herald snails)
Carychium (herald snails), eg: Carychium minimum (Short-toothed Herald Snail) - Shell - showing mouth
Family 3 subtaxa 2 ident refs
CEPHALASPIDEA P. Fischer, 1883 (an order of molluscs) Order 1 subtaxon  
RUNCINIDAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 (a family of marine gastropods) Family 1 subtaxon  
Runcina coronata (Quatrefages, 1844) (a sea slug)
Animal - partly extended - dorsal view
COCHLICELLIDAE Schileyko, 1972 (a family of molluscs) Family 1 subtaxon  
Cochlicella (Cochlicella) acuta (O. F. Müller, 1774) (Pointed Snail)
ECTOBRANCHIA Fischer, 1884 (an order of molluscs) Order 1 subtaxon  
VALVATIDAE O. F. Müller, 1774 (valve snails) Family   1 ident refs
HETEROSTROPHA (an order of molluscs)
Order 4 subtaxa 6 ident refs
HYGROMIIDAE Tryon, 1866 (a family of molluscs)
Helicella itala (Heath Snail), eg: Helicella itala (Heath Snail) - Shell Hygromia (a genus of molluscs), eg: Hygromia (Hygromia) cinctella (Girdled Snail) - Shell - top view Monacha (a genus of molluscs), eg: Monacha (Monacha) cantiana (Kentish Snail) - Mating pair Trochulus (a genus of molluscs), eg: Trochulus (Trochulus) hispidus (Hairy Snail) - Mouth
Family 5 subtaxa  
HYGROPHILA Férussac, 1822 (an order of molluscs)
ACROLOXIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Acroloxus lacustris (Lake Limpet) - Top view LYMNAEIDAE (pond snails), eg: Radix peregra (Wandering Pondsnail) - Dorsal view PHYSIDAE (bladder snails), eg: Physa sp. (not fontinalis) (Introduced Bladder Snails) - Dorsal view PLANORBIDAE (ram’s horn or trumpet snails), eg: Ancylus fluviatilis (River Limpet) - Dorsal view
Order 19 subtaxa 5 ident refs
Lauria (Lauria) cylindracea (da Costa, 1778) (Common Chrysalis Snail)
LITTORINIMORPHA Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 (an order of molluscs)
BITHYNIIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Bithynia tentaculata (Common Bithynia) - Crawling animal - dorsal view CALYPTRAEIDAE (slipper limpets), eg: Calyptraea chinensis (Chinaman's Hat) - Dorsal view - active HYDROBIIDAE (spire snails or mudsnails), eg: Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Jenkins' Spire Snail) - Live animal - dorsal view LITTORINIDAE (periwinkles), eg: Littorina fabalis (Flat Periwinkle) - Mouth view - animal withdrawn NATICIDAE (a family of whelks), eg: Euspira catena (a whelk) - Empty shell - top view RISSOIDAE (a family of prosobranch marine snails), eg: Rissoa membranacea var. membranacea (a marine snail) - Shells TRIVIIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Trivia monacha (Spotted Cowrie) - Active animal - antero-dorsal view TRUNCATELLIDAE (looping snails), eg: Truncatella subcylindrica (Looping Snail) - Looping - oblique view - close-up VELUTINIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Lamellaria perspicua (a prosobranch mollusc) - Latero-dorsal view
Order 26 subtaxa 10 ident refs
NEOTAENIOGLOSSA Haller, 1892 (an order of molluscs)
POMATIIDAE (land winkles), eg: Pomatias elegans (Round-mouthed Snail) - Shell TURRITELLIDAE (turret shells), eg: Turritella communis (Turret Shell, Auger Shell) - Shells - body whorl view
Order 7 subtaxa 9 ident refs
NUDIBRANCHIA Cuvier, 1817 (sea slugs)
AEOLIDACEA (a suborder of sea slugs), eg: Facelina auriculata (a sea slug) - Dorsal view DISCODORIDIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Geitodoris planata (a sea slug) - Under water - dorsal view DORIDACEA (a suborder of sea slugs), eg: Polycera quadrilineata (a sea-slug) - Dorsal view DOTIDAE (a family of sea slugs), eg: Unidentified Doto (Unidentified Doto Sea Slugs) - Lateral view GONIODORIDIDAE (a family of sea slugs), eg: Goniodoris nodosa (a sea slug) - Side view
Order 14 subtaxa 6 ident refs
OPISTHOBRANCHIA (opisthobranchs)
Order 2 subtaxa 8 ident refs
PATELLOGASTROPODA (an order of molluscs)
LOTTIIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Tectura virginea (White Tortoiseshell Limpet) - Active animal - ventral view PATELLIDAE (limpets), eg: Patella vulgata (Common Limpet) - In situ - lateral view
Order 6 subtaxa 2 ident refs
PATULIDAE (a family of molluscs) Family 1 subtaxon  
Discus (Gonyodiscus) rotundatus (Muller, 1774) (Rounded Snail)
PLEUROBRANCHOMORPHA (an order of marine gastropods)
PLEUROBRANCHIDAE (a family of marine gastropods), eg: Berthella plumula (Yellow-plumed Sea Slug) - Dorsal view
Order 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
PROSOBRANCHIA Milne-Edwards, 1848 (operculate molluscs)
ARCHAEOGASTROPODA (limpets and top shells), eg: Tricolia pullus (Pheasant Shell) - Crawling - viewed from left side below NEOGASTROPODA (an order of predatory gastropods), eg: Ocenebra erinaceus (Rough Tingle, Sting Winkle, Oyster Drill) - Dorsal view
Subclass 15 subtaxa 22 ident refs
PULMONATA (slugs and snails)
ARCHAEOPULMONATA (hollow-shelled snails), eg: Myosotella myosotis (Mouse-eared Snail) - Crawling - dorsal view STYLOMMATOPHORA (slugs and snails), eg: Cepaea (Cepaea) nemoralis (Brown Lipped Snail, Brown-lipped Snail) - Yf0345, dark lip - active - side view
Subclass 37 subtaxa 47 ident refs
SACOGLOSSA Ihering, 1876 (an order of marine gastropods)
ELYSIIDAE (a family of sea hares), eg: Elysia viridis (a sea hare) - Parapodia extended - latero-dorsal view - close-up HERMAEIDAE (a family of molluscs), eg: Hermaea bifida (a sea-slug) - Dorsal view LIMAPONTIIDAE (a family of marine gastropods), eg: Limapontia capitata (a sacoglossan sea-slug) - Dorsal view
Order 4 subtaxa 1 ident refs
SYSTELLOMMATOPHORA Pilsbry, 1948 (an order of molluscs) Order 1 subtaxon  
ONCHIDIIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 (a family of marine molluscs) Family 1 subtaxon  
Onchidella celtica (Cuvier, 1816) (Celtic Sea Slug)
In situ
VETIGASTROPODA Salvini-Plawen, 1980 (a subclass of molluscs) Subclass   1 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Cameron, R.A.D. & Redfern, M., 1976 British Land Snails
Macan, T.T. & Cooper, R.D., 1960 A Key to the British Fresh- and Brackish-Water Gastropods
Morton, J.E. & Machin, J., 1959 (Land snails) A key to the Land snails of the Flatford Area, Suffolk
Wardhaugh, A.A., 1989 Land Snails of the British Isles
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)


Janus, H., 1965 The Young Specialist looks at Molluscs
Module 10: identification of Molluscs (Gastropoda and Bivalvia): Module 10: identification of Molluscs (Gastropoda and Bivalvia)


Fishers Collection: Fishers Collection
UK Seashells: UK Seashells
Newell, G.E. & Newell, R.C., 1973 (larvae) Marine Plankton - a practical guide

Planktonic larvae

Apstein, C. & Brandt, K.A.H. (eds), 1901 Tunicata, Mollusca


Janus, H., 1965 The Young Specialist looks at Molluscs

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 53 general literature references to GASTROPODA (slugs and snails)

GASTROPODA may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)
(slugs, snails, bivalves, octopus, sea slugs)

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 155 feeding and other relationships of GASTROPODA (slugs and snails)

Further Information

Lab. techniques To prepare microscope slides of the radula:

1. Gently cut off or extract the head region of the dead snail.
2. Macerate in 5% KOH in a hot waterbath until the tissues disintegrate, (about 10 mins for a small snail)
3. Find the radula (not always easy! Even adding Safranin to the alkali doesn't help)
4. Stain in Safranin
5. Wash
6. Make a temporary mount in lactophenol (but this tends to dissolve out the stain: need to experiment with other stains eg Lignin Pink)
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