BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

ASCIDIACEA Nielsen, 1995 (ascidians, sea-squirts)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Class)

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Alder, J. & Hancock, A. (Hopkinson J. (Ed.)), 1905 The British Tunicata; an unfinished monograph, by the late Joshua Alder and the late Albany Hancock
The Dutch Ascidians: The Dutch Ascidians
Biodiversity des algues marines et de la fauna marine des cotes francaises: Manche et Atlantique: Biodiversity des algues marines et de la fauna marine des cotes francaises: Manche et Atlantique
British Marine Life Pictures: British Marine Life Pictures
Millar, R.H., 1970 British Ascidians


Panama - Bocas del Toro: Panama - Bocas del Toro

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 3 general literature references to ASCIDIACEA (ascidians, sea-squirts)

ASCIDIACEA may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)
(ascidians, sea-squirts, tunicates)

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 13 feeding and other relationships of ASCIDIACEA (ascidians, sea-squirts)

Further Information

Lab. techniques Certain identification generally requires dissection followed by microscopic examination of internal features after removing the outer coat (test).

For the larger species this is often most easily accomplished with a pair of fine-pointed scissors inserted through the oral siphon; cutting with a scalpel invariably slices through the gut and gonads as well. This should be done relatively soon after collection, since, although they survive for several days in a refridgerator, once the gut is empty it is much less visible.
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