BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

(Armillaria mellea s.l.) (honey fungi)

Sets of Photographs

These relate to individual finds ("biological records") of the organism.

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Informal)

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

West, J.S., Hughes, C. & Fox, R.T.V., 2000 Armillaria mellea can infect the perennial weed, Rumex obtusifolius, in the UK

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 8 general literature references to (Armillaria mellea s.l.) (honey fungi)

(Armillaria mellea s.l.) may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)
(true fungi)
(spore droppers)
(a class of fungi)
(mushrooms and toadstools)
(a family of chanterelles)
(honey fungi)
Macromycetes (via Agaricales) Fungi s.l.

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 149 feeding and other relationships of (Armillaria mellea s.l.) (honey fungi)

Further Information

Notes (MWS) An aggregate of species some of which are thought to be serious parasites which cause the death of their host tree while others are saprobic or even mycorrhizal species. The component species require culturing to distinguish.
Lab. techniques Confirmation of the common Honey Fungus, Armillaria mellea, requires microscopic examination to check that there are no clamp connections at the base of the basidia. Congo Red in dilute ammonia is a suitable mountant. Place a tiny fragment of gill in the Congo Red, apply the cover slip and gently press with the end of a pencil. Leave for a few minutes to stain and soften, then, ideally, run in water (or dilute ammonia) before squashing again, harder this time, until the tissue breaks up and the basidia separate. (Take care as splashes of Congo Red will permanently stain clothing.) Examine under at least x40 objective.
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